Endometriosis is a gynecological condition in which the endometrial tissue that grows normally in the uterus begins to develop outside of it.
Such abnormal growth can occur anywhere but usually, it is found in the pelvic region, affecting the fallopian tubes, ovaries, peritoneum, and lymph nodes.
Tissues do not have as much problem with their behavior.
The cells of these endometrial tissues shed the hormonal cycle and blood during menstruation.
As there is no outlet for this blood, it gets trapped inside.
Secondly, it makes the organs stick together, causing disorder and pain. For example, it can block the fallopian tube and affect a woman’s fertility.
In rare cases, tissue development can spread to other parts of the body.
Endometriosis affects 5–10 percent of women at their reproductive age.
This Diagnosis is difficult because symptoms are generalized but controlled with treatment.
Endometriosis is a painful condition with symptoms similar to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), ovarian cyst, or pelvic inflammation.
Similar to periods, the common symptom of a disorder is pelvic pain. It has the following symptoms:
- Infertility. Interruption of the function of the fallopian tubes or ovaries.
- Extreme menstrual cramps, difficult to control with NSAIDs
- Prolonged lower back and pelvic pain
- The prolongation extends to seven days and more.
- Hemorrhagia- Extremely heavy menstrual flow is required to replace the pad after every hour or two.
- Intestinal and urinary problems including pain, diarrhea, constipation, and bloating
- Pain during sexual intercourse
- Inter-period spotting or bleeding
- Traces of blood in urine or feces
- Nausea and vomiting
Although all women experience menstrual cramps, pain in endometriosis is very acute and severe.
Symptoms are reduced when hormone levels drop, such as in pregnancy or menopause.
Infertility – The most common risk associated with endometriosis is infertility.
30 percent of women with the condition have problems with conception. IVF provides a solution for endometriotic women to become pregnant.
Tissue development in the fallopian tube may prevent the egg from reaching the uterus and be fertilized by sperm.
Damage caused to eggs or sperm cells can also lead to infertility.
Yet, women with mild or severe endometriosis can become pregnant and deliver a healthy baby.
IVF Specialist Dr. Shivani Bhutani usually advises her patients not to delay delivery as the symptoms usually worsen over time.
There is a low risk of developing ovarian cancer for people with endometriosis.
Another type of cancer called adenocarcinoma is also associated with it, although less prevalent.
Overall, the risk of ovarian cancer in women is very low, it increases.
There are several reasons for endometriosis and resulting abnormal cell growth. Possible reasons include:
Retrograde menstruation– It is a problem associated with menstrual flow. The bloodstream passes through the fallopian tubes and pelvic region instead of being released from the body in a natural way.
Embryonic cell growth: Sometimes, embryonic cells present in the stomach and pelvis begin to transform into endometrial tissue.
Transformation of peritoneal cells: These are cells that form the inner lining of the stomach. Hormones and immune status transform them into endometrial tissue.
Surgical scar: The circulation of endometrial cells can occur during surgical procedures such as a section or hysterectomy.
Endometrial cell transport: The endometrial cell is transported to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system.
Heredity: This may include genetic factors. If your close blood relatives are suffering from endometriosis, this may put you at risk.
Immune system disorder: Immune system disorder can also prevent the descent of excess uterine endometrial tissue growth.
Early detection and diagnosis of endometriosis by skilled specialists, followed by treatment results in better management and control.
Eva Hospital’s specialist team first conducts a pelvic examination, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and laparoscopic diagnosis to identify the disorder.
Dr. Shivani Bhutani states that the aim of treatment is to relieve the patient from symptoms and prevent further consequences and risks.
Advanced treatment is available, including endometriosis:
- Hormone therapy
- Medical procedures such as conception, electrocoagulation, and endometrial ablation
- Electrosurgery and laparoscopic surgery
See your doctor
Endometriosis is always misunderstood for other disorders that cause pelvic pain.
If you have any signs and symptoms such as those discussed above, see your specialist physician for proper diagnosis and treatment.