Male Fertility Issues - Sperm Retrieval- PESA, TESE, MESA
Male fertility is a major concern today as compared to 2 decades ago. Much as female infertility is also a vital issue, male infertility currently requires extensive awareness because of the doubling victims. Our fertility centre has established a generalized and modern approach to the various male infertility issues centred around sperms.
Under normal conditions, sperms are produced in the testis, stored in the epididymis and will then travel through the vas deferens to the ejaculatory duct. In case a man engages in sexual intercourse, these sperms will get combined with the semen released by the seminal vesicles and will both be released through the penis. Obviously, in case a woman released an egg through a process known as ovulation, the sperms will travel to the Fallopian tube where it meets the egg and fertilization will occur.
In cases like obstructive, non-obstructive azoospermia or congenital absence, sperms cannot travel or cannot be produced to help a man to get children.
Male Infertility and Obstructive Azoospermia
Studies indicate that 80% of males with obstructive azoospermia are able to attain normal sperms to pregnant a woman after the obstruction is eliminated. Treatment can facilitate both assisted reproduction and natural conception.
Male Infertility and Non-Obstructive Azoospermia
Non-obstructive azoospermia is a condition where the testicles are producing few sperms. In this category, retrograde ejaculation is a common condition where the sperms enter the bladder instead of entering the penis to be ejaculated
Cases where there is a complete absence of sperms for the ejaculation, fertility treatments are utilized to attain sperms in which these are taken for a sperm analysis in the laboratory. Sperms are surgically retrieved.
Forms of Sperm Retrieval
There are basically 3 forms of sperm retrieval utilized at our IVF clinic in India and these act as the Assisted Reproductive Procedures/Techniques to combat male infertility
PESA (Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration)
This specialized procedure requires a fine needle to be passed from the outer layer of the male’s testicles to the epididymis (sperm bank) and retrieve sperms. These sperms are prepared and then used for an ICSI procedure. Meaning that these sperms are directly injected into the egg
TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction)
In this procedure, local anesthesia is administered to a patient and a small portion of tissue (biopsy) is removed from the testicle and sperms are collected. In other cases, a number of biopsies can be removed
ICSI or IVF are ideal options where the retrieved sperm is prepared and injected into the egg or combined with the eggs in the petri dish respectively for fertilization process.
MESA (Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration)
This procedure is conducted under local anesthesia and during the process, a microscopy is utilized to locate the epididymal tubules in order to retrieve plenty of sperms.
What happens after the Procedures
There is no hospitalization required in this case. Two to three hours are enough to return home, but a man will require 4 to 6 days before returning to work in case MESA is used.
PESA, TESE, and MESA are ideal infertility treatments that have helped combat a number of cases regarding infertility in India.
Sperm retrieval can also be conducted in the case where a man isn’t interested in sexual intercourse, medical constraints, defects among others.