IVF or in-vitro fertilization is an assisted reproductive technique that helps couples with fertility problems to produce children.
It has been a successful infertility treatment worldwide by combining with ICSI.
The final stage in IVF is Fetal implantation. Even when everything goes right, sometimes it can happen that the fetus is not attached to the uterus or develop to full.
Reasons for implantation failure are diverse. Experienced fertility specialists are aware of these conditions.
They remain in the midst of the latest research and apply related techniques to successfully complete the cycle with a healthy pregnancy.
Eva’s Fertility Specialist Dr.Shivani Bhutani said, “The final phase of the IVF cycle largely depends on biological factors rather than techniques.
However, each variable must be carefully screened to ensure that implantation is successful and that everyone has a favorable chance of bearing a child.
At the Eva Infertility Center, we conduct thorough preliminary testing to prevent implantation failure. “
Understanding Embryo Implantation Failure
Implantation occurs when eggs and sperm are usually combined in the laboratory for fertilization during the IVF process.
From this union, a fetus is formed. It is then transferred to the woman’s uterus on the 3rd to 5th day of the cycle.
The blastocyst then makes a contact with the lining of the uterine wall called the endometrium.
The blastocyst attaches to the wall if the endometrium accepts a successful interaction.
However, for some couples, normally normal embryos fail to attach to the uterus and develop into a fetus. Understanding various possible causes in preventing future recurrence.
Reasons for Implantation failure
Many known and unknown factors are responsible for a fetus not developing into an embryo.
Biological causes are mainly maternal uterine debility, hormonal or metabolic syndrome, pain, immunological components, and thrombophilia among other abnormal conditions.
The reasons for implantation failure can be divided into three areas.
- Problem with fetus
- Problems with the uterus
- Problems in the interaction between fetus and uterus.
The factors causing the above issues can be attributed to:
- Advanced maternal and paternal age,
- The Genetic ability of a fetus
- Autoimmune factor
- Hormone abnormalities
- Smoking, Alcohol, and Drugs
If the conditions are repeated in more than one IVF cycle for a couple, it is called recurrent transplant failure or RFI. RFI is also attributed to several other lesser-known factors.
IVF screening to prevent transplant failure
Various tests are performed in a normal non-IVF menstrual cycle to detect successful implantation of the fetus.
HSG is the most important test that must be done before embryo transplantation.
The test evaluates the uterus, its environment, and the fallopian tube. Blocked fallopian tubes reduce the chance of conception by half.
The endometrium is the inner wall of the uterus that connects the fetus to itself.
The endometrial receptivity assay (ERA) is a test that evaluates the receptivity of the endometrial wall.
It is a useful test that determines and grades its receptivity on a particular day in the menstrual cycle. Fertility specialists can then choose those days for transfer.
Embryos can be frozen and transferred taking into account the dose of hormones given before transfer.
The causes of implantation failure are most commonly related to the embryo or blastocyst.
In the “fertilization” phase of IVF, many eggs are fertilized.
Out of all the blastocysts that have been developed, the ‘best’ is selected for transfer after the screening test.
In simple words, this test is like a biopsy. Cells are extracted from a developing embryo and tested for chromosome composition.
Healthy and genetically normal cells have higher pregnancy success rates and fewer results of miscarriage.
Mostly when other investigations indicate a correct environment, immunology is playing a role in failing the last part of the IVF cycle-implantation.
Dr. Shivani proposes a limited number of tests when factors such as egg quality, uterine environment, and fetal health are favorable.
When two cycles fail to implant, it is a case of RIF. Immunological testing and treatment can greatly benefit couples who feel hopeless at this level.
Immune system evaluation can provide a more personalized approach for each couple.
Typically, with the increase in age of a woman, the number of eggs decreases, and the percentage of abnormal oocytes increases.
With advanced scientific approaches, women at any age can have a healthy pregnancy with IVF.
Couples who change doctors or clinics under RIF conditions are likely to be devastated by the repetitive outcome they go through.
However, with a little understanding of the process, you can not only avoid environmental factors from your end but also understand which direction your treatment is heading.
To handle emotional turmoil, it is a good idea to consult for IVF as a couple.